Tuesday, 30 April 2013

Halifax's Namesake Tug

Tugs are a big part of the daily drama of Halifax Harbour which plays out in front of our waterfront museum. A favourite of museum staff was the tug Point Halifax. We recently acquired a large model of the port's namesake tug. 

1) The model of Point Halifax, M2009.19.1

The real Point Halifax worked for decades as a harbour tug.  She was designed here but built in 1986 at Bromborough, England. Point Halifax was the first tug in Eastern Canada with azimuth drives (swivelling propeller pods.) She was twice as powerful as any tug in Halifax when she first arrived. For years she was the flagship of Eastern Canada Towing (known as ECTUG), the main tug company in Halifax and successor to the famous tugs of the Foundation Maritime Company.

2) The real Point Halifax at work in Halifax Harbour in 1986 and 1991. Courtesy of Mac Mackay.
You can find out more about the history of this tug on Mac's terrific tug boat blog: Tugfax

In 2009 a model builder named Murray Petitpas from Pointe-du-ChĂȘne in New Brunswick donated a large radio-controlled model of Point Halifax to the museum.  The model is built to a large scale ( 1:18).  A "GI Joe" toy figure would feel right at home! Almost 3 metres long and powered by a gasoline engine from a ride-on lawnmower, the model was big enough to move small fishing boats around in the harbour at Pointe-du-ChĂȘne!  

3) This is the model tug alongside in a muddy inlet at Southport, Prince Edward Island, about 1997. Image courtesy Murray Petitpas.

Mr. Petitpas built the model from plans provided by the engineer of the tug. It is outfitted with all the gear needed to safely move ships in the harbour: a working winch, lights, tires and all the necessary miniature safety equipment. Cabin windows even have the traditional curtain colours: red for port side windows, green for the starboard side.

4) The model's rigid inflatable boat complete with a Mercury outboard.

Mr. Petitpas brought the model to the museum on a small trailer. Just as we unloaded the model in the museum courtyard, we heard the throaty growl of big diesel engines as the real tug Point Halifax happened to pass by the museum - almost as if she was checking out her scale depiction. 

Models capture a ship at one particular moment in their career, but ships are always changing and this tug has seen plenty of recent changes. Mergers and new owners added new paint schemes and emblems. Point Halifax left her namesake city in 2010 to work in Cape Breton. She was sold to McKeil Marine in 2012, renamed Leonard M., and now works out of the Gulf of St. Lawrence in that company's white and blue livery. In March 2013, an elevated wheelhouse was added for barge work.

5) An elevated wheelhouse is lifted onto the tug Leonard M, ex Point Halifax, St. John's, Newfoundland in March 2013. Image used with permission of Clarence Vautier.

However, back in our steam gallery, Mr. Petitpas' model preserves the look of this tug when she was still the "big kid on the block " in Halifax. We recently installed the model in a dramatic perch in our steam gallery right beside the office sign recently donated by Svitzer Canada which hung above the tug wharves in Halifax.

Monday, 15 April 2013

New Artifact: A Titanic Report that Changed History

Today, on the 101st anniversary of Titanic's sinking, our museum installed a new donation as part of our permanent Titanic exhibit. It is an original 1912 report of the influential British investigation into Titanic’s sinking. The British shipwreck inquiry, which followed quickly on the heels of a Senate Inquiry in the United States, was headed by the British Judge Lord Mersey. While regarded by many as a whitewash since it did not assign blame, the Inquiry did make important and wide-ranging safety recommendations. These included requiring lifeboats for everyone aboard, round-the-clock monitoring for distress calls and mandatory iceberg reporting. These recommendations were made into international standards in 1914 by the International Convention on Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS). Updated over the years, SOLAS still governs the safety of mariners and passengers today.

This 1912 copy of the report was used by the Cunard Line at their office in London, England to upgrade the safety standards for its vast fleet in the wake of the Titanic tragedy. The volume includes not only the 1912 Mersey Report but also the 1914 SOLAS Convention and the various British laws and recommendations that followed in the same year. It gives us a vivid period view of government, captains and corporations trying to change their ways following the high profile tragedy.

Frank Dawson, a senior Cunard employee, gave the volume to naval historian Peter Elliott in 1968.  Dawson, who knew Titanic’s officers personally, offered his blunt opinion of the safety standards of his rivals at the White Star in this 1968 letter which he sent with the 1912 report.

This volume, bound and titled evocatively in gold, as “TITANIC ETC”, contains five documents. They trace the chain reaction of reform that followed in the wake of Titanic. Dramatic changes were first called for in the British Inquiry; codified in the International Treaty; made into British law by the board of trade and then implemented by British steamship companies. In the notes from a key 1914 meeting in Liverpool of the many liner companies of the International Mercantile Marine (Titanic's parent company), you can see how captains and companies were grappling with the adaption these new rules to their ships.

  1)  Shipping casualties (loss of the Steamship "Titanic") : report of a formal investigation into the circumstances attending the foundering on 15th April, 1912, of the British Steamship "Titanic." , July 30, 1912  by the UK’s Court of Wreck Commissioner Lord John C. Bigham Mersey.
  2)   International Convention of Safety of Life at Sea,  Text of the Convention” Jan. 20, 1914, French original and English translation.
  3)  “Rules for Life Saving Appliances”, May 8, 1914 Board of Trade UK
  4) “Meeting Held at Exchange Station Hotel, June 16, 1914”, minutes of meeting by White Star, Atlantic Transport Line, Leyland Line, Red Star Line, and White Star Dominion American Line about requirements of the Safety of Life at Sea convention.
  5)  “Captain Tubb’s Report on the International Convention of Safety of Life at Sea” by Capt. Frederick William Tubb, marine superintendent of the Atlantic Transport Line circa1914.

The Report of the British Enquiry has been republished and is available online on a number of websites such as this one about Titanic Inquiries. The other documents in our bound volume are less common and some are very rare. Having them altogether in one original document that was actually used by an ocean liner company to improve safety, makes this  a very special object.

The volume was recently donated to the museum by an anonymous donor. We have placed the document in our Titanic exhibit along with Frank Dawson's candid letter. A complete copy of all the documents in the volume is available for researchers at the Museum's Niels Jannasch Library

CREDIT: MMA, M2012.24.1 (Report) and M2012.24.2 (letter) 
All images by Gerry Lunn, Maritime Museum of the Atlantic